The word panchkula is derived from combination of two words panch (local) + kul (Sanskrit: कुला) (canal) which mean the city of five canals. Possibly referring to five irrigation canals which distribute water of ghaggar river from nada sahib to Mata Mansa Devi. The Nada canal has now been eroded by the river and most of the kul’s pass through the cantonment of Chandimandir towards Mansa Devi. The canals are a beautiful example of community property and are maintained by the villagers along the way, with distribution days decided. The canals were made by a ruler in the past, and follow the contours to take water to levels much higher than the river at the same spot.
Panchkula is a well planned city of state of haryana. Panchkula city, was established in the year of 1995 as district. It is a satellite city of the Union Territory of Chandigarh. The prestigious Chandimandir Cantonment Headquarters of the Indian Western Command, is also located in Panchkula city. There are five towns in the district named Panchkula, Barwala, Pinjore, Kalka, and Raipur Rani. The only Hill station in Haryana called Morni is also in this District. In 2011, Panchkula had a population of 561,293 of which male and female were 299,679 and 261,614 respectively. Panchkula and Mohali (in Punjab) are two satellite cities of Chandigarh. These three cities are collectively known as Chandigarh Tricity.
Panchkula district has a sub tropical continental monsoon climate where the seasons are, hot summer, cool winter, good monsoon rainfall and great variation in temperature (0 °C to 43 °C). In winter frost sometimes occurs during December and January. The district also receives winter rains from the western disturbance. The rainfall is mostly received in the monsoon. Morni hills constitute the highest point of the district as well as of Haryana. The Ghaggar river is the only perennial river. It is very shallow outside of the monsoons. The Ghaggar river system is now thought to be the original Saraswati river, It now dries up in Rajasthan and does not reach the sea. This is due to geological changes that diverted the Sutlej from Ropar to take another channel. The important rivers/streams of the district are Ghaggar, Sirsa, Kaushalya.
Panchkula is surrounded by Himachal Pradesh in the north and east, Punjab and Union Territory of Chandigarh in the west and by Ambala district in the south as well as east. Panchkula district shares its borders with Chandigarh, Mohali district, Ambala district and Solan district.
The present district of Panchkula has a mixed type of economy. But of a total population of 319398 about 31.03 % of its population has been enumerated as main workers in the district against 28.64% for the state as a whole at the time of 1991 census. In the district 29.78% of its main workers are engaged in agriculture activities which includes cultivators and agriculture’s against 37.54% fro the state as a whole which explains subsistence type of agricultural activities as well as diversification of economic activities in the district. The proportion of the main workers engaged in household industry is 1.83% in the district against 2.18% for Haryana. The percentage of main workers in manufacturing, processing servicing and repair (other than household industry) is 13.26% in Panchkula district against 9.60 for the state. The proportion of main workers in construction, trade and commerce, transport, storage and communications is relatively high in the district than the state figures.
The district serves as important link between the hills and the plains. The present district of Panchkula remained industrially backward particularly till the beginning of the twentieth century. Its manufacturing units were few and unimportant. The Panchkula town of the district had made rapid progress in the field of industrial development since it came into existence on 3rd July 1989. The district now has a prominent place in the industrial map of Haryana. Panchkula urban estate, H.M.T., Pinjore and Surajpur are important industrial centers. It also keenly promotes animal husbandry, fisheries and forestry, which plays a subsidiary but an important role in agriculture economy. Irrigation in the district depends on tubewells. The percolation wells are also located in plain areas where sub-soil water is not too low. Kuhl irrigation is also prevalent in hilly tract of the district. The major Kharif crops are Sugarcane, paddy, maize while minor or subsidiary crops are chilies, pulses, vegetables etc. The major Rabi crops are wheat, gram, barley and oilseeds while minor Rabi crops are barseem, methi, onion and other winter vegetables.